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Public Key Cryptography (PKC)(c) Chuck Painter/Stanford News Service Ralph Merkle, Martin Hellman, Whitfield Diffie (1977)
Public Key Cryptography (PKC) is a near magical property of information arising from the underlying mathematical structure of the universe that also conveniently enables creation of modernday secure communication channels on the Internet. The main feature of PKC is the use of two keys for each person, a public key and a private key, where either key can decrypt a message encrypted with the other. Each key is almost impossible to find out from the other, and if the keys are long enough the method is effectively unbreakable  according to the known laws of science. The elegant PKC architecture enables clever creation of a secure communications system for distributed participants, which is exactly what is needed for the Internet. The technology is the basis of the field of Public Key Infrastructure (PKI), and the basis of the industry standard Rivest Shamir Adleman (RSA) encryption algorithm. The following pages provide more information. 